Blog Home

Archive for the 'Policy' Category




Health Policy Brief: The Relative Contribution Of Multiple Determinants To Health Outcomes


August 22nd, 2014

A new Health Policy Brief from Health Affairs and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF) examines factors that can contribute to health status. In the United States, less than 9 percent of health expenditures go to disease prevention, and there is little support for social services, such as programs for older adults, housing, and employment programs.

This brief focuses on “multiple determinant” studies that seek to quantify the relative influence of some of these factors on health. It is part of a larger project, supported by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, which aims to create a structure for conducting analyses that demonstrate the value of investments in nonclinical primary prevention and their impact on health care costs.

Read the rest of this entry »

Health Affairs Briefing: Advancing Global Health Policy


August 22nd, 2014

Please join us on Monday, September 8, when Health Affairs Editor-in-Chief Alan Weil will host a briefing to discuss our September 2014 thematic issue, “Advancing Global Health Policy.”  In an expansion of last year’s theme, “The ‘Triple Aim’ Goes Global,” we explore how developing and industrialized countries around the world are confronting challenges and learning from each other on three aims: cost, quality, and population health.

A highlight of the event will be a discussion of international health policy—led by Weil—featuring former CMS and FDA administrator and current Brookings Institution Senior Fellow Mark McClellan and Lord Ara Darzi, surgeon, scholar, and former UK Health Minister. Additional panels will look at how countries are transforming chronic care, lowering costs, and redesigning delivery systems.

WHEN: 
Monday, September 8, 2014
9:00 a.m. – 12:30 p.m.

WHERE: 
National Press Club
529 14th Street NW
Washington, DC, 13th Floor

REGISTER NOW!

Follow Live Tweets from the briefing @HA_Events, and join in the conversation with #HA_GlobalHealth.

Read the rest of this entry »

The “Failure” Of Bundled Payment: The Importance Of Consumer Incentives


August 21st, 2014

Bundled payment for orthopedic and spine surgery and other major acute interventions has many attractive features, in principle. But implementation has been difficult in practice.  The recent Health Affairs paper by Susan Ridgley and colleagues, and the Health Affairs Blog commentary by Tom Williams and Jill Yegian, list quite a few practical implementation problems, and the points raised in both these pieces are well taken.

As leaders in the Integrated Health Association (IHA) bundled payment initiative, we shared the same hopes, devoted the same energies, and share the same frustrations with the modest results.  We feel it is important to emphasize what we consider to be the initiative’s most important design failure: the lack of engagement and alignment on the part of the consumer.  No one will ever reform the U.S. health care system without bringing the consumer along and, indeed, placing consumer choice and accountability at the very center of the reform initiative.

On an optimistic note, this design failure is being addressed by the larger health care marketplace in the wake of numerous failed attempts to reform health care by focusing exclusively on provider payment and incentives.

Read the rest of this entry »

Key Success Factors For the Medicare Shared Savings Program


August 21st, 2014

In January 2012 the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) officially launched the Medicare Shared Savings Program (MSSP) for the formation of national Accountable Care Organizations (ACOs). Early participants were charged with bringing the theory of accountable care into practice.

Premier, a national healthcare improvement alliance of hospitals and health systems, created a population health collaborative in 2010 designed to assist providers with developing and implementing successful ACOs both in the public and private sectors.

Thus far, the Premier collaborative has advised nearly 30 MSSP applicants, and is working with another 30 more, on how to structure and manage an effective ACO. Through benchmarking tools, financial models, the sharing of best (and worst) practices, etc., members of the Premier PACT Collaborative have outperformed the national MSSP cohort.

Read the rest of this entry »

The Role Of Black Box Warnings In Safe Prescribing Practices


August 20th, 2014

In the Health Affairs article, “Era of Faster Drug Approval Has Also Seen Increased Black-Box Warnings and Market Withdrawals,” published in the August issue, Cassie Frank and coauthors compare the number of approved prescription drugs that received black-box warnings or were withdrawn from the market for safety-related reasons prior to the 1992 Prescription Drug User Fee Act (PDUFA) with black-box warnings and safety-related withdrawals in the post-PDUFA era.

PDUFA for the first time authorized FDA to collect user fees from brand-name manufacturers that submitted New Drug Applications, with the funds being earmarked for more review staff (not until 2007 were funds also permitted to be used to expand post-approval safety surveillance capacity).

As a quid pro quo, the FDA was required to act on all new drugs within a fixed deadline: drugs given priority review designations because they were particularly promising therapies offering substantial improvements in treating serious conditions were to be reviewed within 6 months and standard review drugs were to be reviewed within 12 months (later shortened to 10 months in 2002). By all accounts, PDUFA substantially expedited the review process. The review times for new molecular entities decreased from an average of 33.6 months between 1978 and 1986 to about 10 months for drugs approved between 2001-2010.

Read the rest of this entry »

Whither CHIP?


August 19th, 2014

In a day all but lost to Affordable Care Act prehistory, on November 7, 2009, the House of Representatives passed the Affordable Health Care for America Act. Among the bill’s many differences with its Senate counterpart, it would have allowed the Children’s Health Insurance Program (CHIP) to expire at the end of 2013, with children covered under that program enrolled in either Medicaid or commercial Exchange plans.

On December 24, the Senate passed the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA). Their bill extended CHIP through fiscal year 2015 while, curiously, enhancing the Federal match rate for the program beyond that date and instituting a maintenance of effort (MOE) requirement for states to keep CHIP kids covered through 2019.

At the time, drafters of the respective chamber’s versions of health reform anticipated heading to conference to negotiate and resolve their differences, with the disposition of CHIP one of the top considerations.

Read the rest of this entry »

The Latest Health Wonk Review


August 15th, 2014

At Wright on Health, Brad Wright offers some health policy insight in his August recess edition of the health wonk review. Brad highlights the Health Affairs Blog post by Jon Kingsdale and Julia Lerche on the “one-two punch” threatening the ACA’s second open enrollment period, as well as a variety of other great posts. 

Read the rest of this entry »

Remembering Jessie Gruman


August 15th, 2014

Jessie Gruman, founding president of the Center for Advancing Health, died on July 14 after a fifth bout with cancer. Jessie was a hero to patients, families, and health care providers for her selfless work to help people better understand their role and responsibilities in supporting their own health.

Jessie was an extraordinary soul and a pioneering activist in the person-centered care movement. She used her personal experience with illness to inspire a life’s work aimed at developing practical resources that support peoples’ engagement with their health care. She improved care and improved lives.

Jessie was first diagnosed with cancer at the age of twenty. She was thrown into a world that spoke in a foreign tongue: “medicalese.” She was expected to self-administer a complex medication regime, which she openly admits she sometimes skipped. Jessie described the hard-working health care professionals who fought to make her better all relying on her, a scared twenty-year-old, to understand what they said and implement their plan. She realized the enormous power of people who are engaged in their own health, while also recognizing the challenges to such engagement.

Read the rest of this entry »

Hospital Readmission Reduction Program Reignites Debate Over Risk Adjusting Quality Measures


August 14th, 2014

Note: In addition to Eva DuGoff, Shawn Bishop and Purva Rawal also coauthored this post. 

Do safety net hospitals categorically under perform the national average in terms of managing readmissions? Or is something else triggering higher rates of readmissions in these facilities?  These questions are essential for policymakers to answer as pay-for-performance (P4P) penalties are having a disparate impact on hospitals that serve low-income areas.

Medicare’s Hospital Readmission Reduction Program (HRRP), for example,  links risk-adjusted hospital readmission rates to financial penalties. Hospitals with risk-adjusted readmission rates that fall below the national average are penalized by having their annual Medicare payments reduced by up to 2 percent. In 2015, hospital payments are scheduled to be reduced by up to 3 percent.

But the program’s current system for measuring readmission rates may be flawed. Numerous analyses have found that safety net hospitals, which care for low-income patients, are more than twice as likely to be penalized than hospitals caring for higher-income patients.

Read the rest of this entry »

Implementing Health Reform: ACA-Related Litigation, Special Enrollment Periods, And Navigator Certification And Training (Updated)


August 13th, 2014

Two federal district courts have issued decisions in recent days in litigation relating to the Affordable Care Act. This post will analyze those cases as well as describe two new special enrollment periods recognized by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) in guidance issued on August 4, 2014.

A decision on motion to dismiss Indiana case regarding premium tax credits in the federally facilitated exchange.  First, on August 12, 2014, Judge William T. Lawrence of the United States District Court for the Southern District of Indiana issued an opinion in Indiana v. the IRS, one of the cases challenging the legality of the Internal Revenue Service rule recognizing the issuance of premium tax credits through the federal exchanges. There are currently four cases raising this issue pending in federal courts in Oklahoma, Indiana, Virginia, and the District of Columbia.

Read the rest of this entry »

New Health Policy Brief: Interoperability


August 13th, 2014

A new Health Policy Brief from Health Affairs and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF) looks at the issue of health information exchange. The Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) Act was signed into law at the very beginning of the Obama administration, bringing with it significant investments in health information technology (IT)—$26 billion to date.

While the adoption of electronic health records (EHRs) has increased considerably since 2009, there is very little electronic information sharing among clinicians, hospitals, and other providers. New models of care delivery, designed to improve quality and reduce costs, require both interoperable EHRs and electronic information sharing to be effective. This Health Policy Brief looks at the efforts the federal government has made to improve interoperability and increase the level of electronic information sharing, as well as the barriers to achieving these goals.

Topics covered in this brief include:

Read the rest of this entry »

The Evolution Of A Two-Tier Health Insurance Exchange System


August 13th, 2014

Note: In addition to Rosemarie Day, this post is also coauthored by Pamela Nadash and Angelique Hrycko.

Health reform has been a catalyst for change. It has fostered the creation of public health insurance exchanges and accelerated existing trends in health insurance coverage for employees. Many employers are reevaluating their coverage offerings, some employers are no longer providing insurance coverage, and, among those who continue to offer it, high deductible plans with restricted networks are becoming the norm.

In addition, employers are increasingly outsourcing health insurance benefits management by moving employees to private health insurance exchanges – often in combination with a shift toward a defined contribution approach. Estimates vary, but surveys show that anywhere from 9 to 45 percent of employers plan to implement private exchanges in the future.

Accenture (figure 1) has predicted that by 2018, private exchange enrollment will outpace public exchange enrollment.

Read the rest of this entry »

Implementing Health Reform: Medicare And The ACA Marketplaces (Updated)


August 12th, 2014

On August 1, 2014, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services released a set of frequently asked questions on the relationship between Medicare and the marketplaces. This is not the first guidance CMS has published on this topic, and much of the information in the FAQ was already available. The FAQ is also quite repetitive, as it answers the same questions under different headings, such as “general enrollment FAQs” and “consumer messaging,” but does contain useful information. This post briefly summarizes the FAQ.

The FAQ emphasizes the fact that Medicare and marketplaces operate independently, with little overlap. The marketplaces do not enroll individuals in Medicare or in Medicare Advantage plans and do not sell Medicare supplement plans. Indeed, exchanges cannot legally sell coverage to Medicare beneficiaries.

Read the rest of this entry »

Mental Health Reform: Treating Before Stage 4


August 11th, 2014

When I talk about mental illnesses, I often point out that as a matter of public policy they are the only chronic conditions we wait until Stage 4 – the final stage in a chronic disease process – to treat, and then often only through incarceration.

To me, it is clear why this is the case. We have adopted a behavioral standard – danger to self or others – as a trigger to treatment.

But waiting until injury or death is imminent is no way to treat a chronic health condition. David Mechanic’s thoughtful Health Affairs article, “More People Than Ever Before Are Receiving Behavioral Health Care in the United States, But Gaps and Challenges Remain,” published in the recent August issue, examines the result of this Stage 4 thinking.

Beginning with “the devastating effects on the well-being of individuals, families, and communities,” Mechanic lays out the current state of mental health care in America. Mental illnesses rob individuals of both dignity and decades of life expectancy.

Read the rest of this entry »

Health Affairs Web Firsts: Two Studies Find Mixed Results On EHR Adoption


August 11th, 2014

Since the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) Act was enacted in 2009, Health Affairs has published many articles about the promise of health information technology and the challenges of promoting broad adoption and “meaningful use.”

Last week, on August 7, the journal released two new Web First studies, “More Than Half Of US Hospitals Have At Least A Basic EHR, But Stage 2 Criteria Remain Challenging For Most” and “Despite Substantial Progress In EHR Adoption, Health Information Exchange And Patient Engagement Remain Low In Office Settings.” These studies focus on the latest trends in health information technology adoption among U.S. physicians and hospitals. Both studies, which will also appear in the September issue of Health Affairs, show that while basic electronic health record (EHR) adoption plans have moved forward, more significant implementation remains a daunting challenge for many providers and institutions

Read the rest of this entry »

Implementing Health Reform: Transferring Information Among The Exchanges, The IRS, And Taxpayers


August 8th, 2014

For better or worse, Congress decided to use our tax system and the Internal Revenue Service to operationalize two of the most important features of the Affordable Care Act (ACA): the premium tax credits that make coverage affordable to many lower and moderate-income Americans and the individual responsibility provision which ensures that healthy as well as unhealthy Americans obtain health coverage.

The tax credits are available to otherwise uninsured Americans with incomes between 100 and 400 percent of the federal poverty level. For 2014, tax credits are being received by 85 percent of marketplace enrollees and are reducing their premiums in the federally-facilitated exchanges by 76 percent.

The individual mandate is enforced through a tax that will be imposed on Americans who do have minimum essential coverage—such as employment-based coverage, individual coverage, or coverage through a government program—and who do not qualify for an exemption. For 2014, these individuals will owe a tax for each month that they lack minimum essential coverage of 1/12th of $95 per adult and $47.50 per child (up to $285 for a year) or 1 percent of their income above the tax filing limit up to the average annual cost of bronze plan ($2,448 per individual up to $12,240 for families of five or more).

In a recent post on Health Affairs Blog, Jon Kingsdale and Julia Lerche offered an excellent analysis of some of the difficulties that may be encountered during the 2014 tax filing season. In another post I described briefly recently released 2014 tax forms, as well as further guidance on tax matters. This post examines how tax reporting and filing will be handled in greater detail.

Read the rest of this entry »

An Evolutionary Approach To Advancing Quality Measurement


August 8th, 2014

Editor’s note: Mary Barton also coauthored this post. 

The Medicare Payment Advisory Commission’s June report, like many current discussions on measuring quality in health care, focuses on the need for measures of overuse and outcomes.  The National Committee for Quality Assurance (NCQA) agrees and is committed to developing better measures for these important priorities.

NCQA’s Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set (HEDIS), a tool used by more than 90 percent of America’s health plans to measure performance, includes a readmissions outcome measure, intermediate outcome measures like blood pressure and blood sugar control for diabetics, and measures of relative resource use.

MedPAC suggests focusing on important resource use outcomes, including preventable admissions, emergency department visits, mortality, and readmissions, as well as healthy days at home. These are important for helping us understand the costs of care.

Read the rest of this entry »

Having A Baby: Media Confusion Over Charges, Costs, And The Benefits Of Insurance


August 6th, 2014

Note: In addition to Marc Berk, Claudia Schur also coauthored this post. 

Recent discussion about the Affordable Care Act has intensified the media’s interest in the cost of medical care. While as health services researchers we are perhaps in the best position to provide information on complex health care topics, we may need to improve our ability to distill information into one minute sound bites.

A particularly interesting example of the disconnect between media reporting and a more nuanced analysis occurred earlier this year, on March 4, when NBC ran a story about the cost of having a baby. The story confused the very different concepts of what health care providers charge, what they are actually paid, and what consumers owe, and in so doing obscured one of the key benefits for consumers of being insured.

We were startled to hear that, according to NBC, the cost of having a baby has increased more than 300 percent in the past 10 years. According to the report, the cost of a vaginal delivery went from $7,700 to $32,000, while the cost of a cesarean birth went from $11,000 to $51,000. A small heading in the table presented by NBC cited Truven Analytics as the source of these data.

Read the rest of this entry »

Health Affairs August Issue: Variations In Health Care


August 4th, 2014

Health AffairsAugust variety issue includes a number of studies demonstrating variations in health and health care, such as differing obstetrical complication rates and disparities in care for diabetes. Other subjects in the issue include the impact of ACA coverage on young adults’ out-of-pocket costs; and how price transparency may help lower health care costs.

For mothers-to-be, huge differences in delivery complication rates among hospitals.

Four million women give birth each year in the United States. While the reported incidence of maternal pregnancy-related mortality is low (14.5 per 100,000 live births), the rate of obstetric complications is nearly 13 percent.

Laurent Glance of the University of Rochester and coauthors analyzed data for 750,000 obstetrical deliveries in 2010 from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization’s Nationwide Inpatient Sample. They found that women delivering vaginally at low-performing hospitals had twice the rate of any major complications (22.55 percent) compared to vaginal deliveries at high-performing hospitals (10.42 percent

Read the rest of this entry »

An Ounce Of Prevention For The ACA’s Second Open Enrollment


August 4th, 2014

Note: In addition to Jon Kingsdale, this post is coauthored by Julia Lerche.

Since recovering from its flawed rollout, the ACA has enjoyed a string of successes. By April, some eight million Americans managed to enroll; for 2015, some reluctant insurers, including the nation’s second largest (United), are jumping into the new ACA Marketplaces; and the New England Journal of Medicine recently published an analysis confirming the ACA’s significant reduction of the uninsured.

Approximately 87 percent of Marketplace enrollees claimed premium tax credits, of which an estimated 85 percent, or six million, actually paid premiums. (We assume a disenrollment rate of 3 percent per month since April 2014, which is conservative compared with the Massachusetts Health Connector’s experience and in line with the assumptions of several State-based Marketplaces.) Many of the original six million, plus more recent enrollees, will experience their second enrollment between November 15, 2014 and February 15, 2015. They will also file with the IRS for a premium tax credit as early as January 2015.

The two events in combination represent a huge risk. We hope the responsible agencies will act soon to mitigate the risks.

Read the rest of this entry »

Click here to email us a new post.




This blog is protected by dr Dave\\\'s Spam Karma 2: 1296943 Spams eaten and counting...